Irakli Nadareishvili

August 21st, 2014

3 Philosophies for the IoT Age

IoT eBook“What on earth do pillars of science have to do with IoT?” That’s a question I’ve had to answer a few times since the publication of our latest CA Layer 7 eBook, 3 Philosophies for the IoT Age. At first glance, some people have been a little taken aback at the idea that we’re comparing the Internet of Things to the work of great theoretical physicists like Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr (the founding father of quantum mechanics). What’s the deal here?

Anyone who digs a bit deeper into the document will quickly realize that this comparison refers to IT architecture broadly, rather than IoT specifically and – crucially – that it’s not supposed to be taken too literally. It’s a metaphor, folks! And as a metaphor, I think it works rather well – with Newton representing traditional on-premise architecture, Einstein representing the vast expanse of the Web and Bohr representing the billions of little connections that make up IoT.

While I’m pretty pleased with these analogies, I can’t really claim responsibility for them. The original idea came from my API Academy colleague Mike Amundsen. I took Mike’s idea and ran with it during a talk I gave at APIdays in San Francisco then fleshed it out a bit in the eBook. The more I looked at it, the more connections I could see between IoT and Bohr’s view of a dense, chaotic molecular universe.

I also believe Mike’s physics metaphor has a practical application. IoT is becoming such a big deal that it’s pretty much guaranteed to generate a wealth of business opportunities. But business leaders and IT experts currently have little insight into what this will actually involve. It’s my hope that the eBook will provide a framework for these folks to start exploring what the opportunities are and what the technical requirements for realizing these opportunities will be.

So, if you’re beginning to think about what IoT will mean for your business, 3 Philosophies for the IoT Age might just help to set you off in the right direction.

July 15th, 2014

Beyond the CMS

NPR BuildingOn April 22, 2011, I was in Washington, DC, preparing to start my new job at NPR. At that point in my life, this was pretty much my dream job, so I was very excited and a little nervous. I did a lot of thinking that night and the conclusions I came to eventually became the basis of NPR’s technology strategy. I recently had a chance to share my thoughts from that night as part of a talk at the Integrated Media Association’s iMA 2014 conference. Here are the edited highlights.

The basic premise I started from was that all content management systems are fundamentally broken. This may sound a little harsh but I feel able to say it because I’m part of the problem – I’ve built content management systems for organizations across the public and private sectors, so I’m pretty well placed to tell you that no available CMS platform is architected for what publishers – particularly news outlets – truly need.

Most content management systems were designed years ago, for a much simpler world. We now live in an incredibly fragmented and complex world. Any piece of content tends to be sourced from a variety of places and published across a range of old and new media channels. Throughout this complex process, everything has to work seamlessly. The margin for error during breaking news or major events is pretty much zero.

In this context, what do publishers actually need from a CMS? They need:

  • An easy way to connect with many news sources
  • The ability to push content across a variety of channels
  • Guaranteed availability and scalability

So, how do we build a CMS that actually addresses these needs? To my mind, the solution has three key components. First and foremost, the whole architectural approach must be based on APIs. Second, it must specifically use hypermedia APIs and finally, the APIs must be what I’ve been calling “linked APIs”.

1. APIs First
APIs represent the only universal way to connect anything on the Web to any other online thing. Unfortunately, since we started the Web in a desktop-centric world, APIs were an afterthought. Historically, we used to build a Web site and then maybe also add an API, as a window into our content.

This is the wrong approach. Your Web site is just one of the destinations for your content. Increasingly, it’s not even the most important one, since mobile viewership is clearly on the rise. Don’t treat your Web site as special. All your content and functionality should be put into and delivered through APIs.

 2. Hypermedia
Publishers need things to just work. They don’t care about the technical details; they just can’t have their services go down at any time – so, scalability is paramount. And how do you ensure scalability? As I’ve pointed out before, the most scalable network ever created is the World Wide Web and the secret to the Web’s scalability is hypermedia.

Hypermedia is any type of content that not only carries data but also links to other documents. The hypermedia type that is most fundamental to the Web – and certainly the one we are most familiar with – is HTML. However, HTML was designed for human-centric Web sites, not for exchanging structured content via APIs.

There are, however, other hypermedia types that were designed for this very purpose. As a matter of fact, I was involved in the creation of a very robust one called Collection.Document, which was designed specifically for media organizations.

3. Linked APIs
Leveraging hypermedia as an integral part of interface design allows us to create “linked APIs”. Most current APIs are, at best, creating narrow windows into the solid walls of data silos. Even the most high-profile API will typically only provide access to a single corporate database. Hypermedia allows us to create links between these databases.

This will prove essential to the next generation of content management systems because linked APIs have the potential to give content publishers the freedom they want to seamlessly integrate content from diverse sources and push it across the full spectrum of online channels. As such, they could even come to represent the engine that drives press freedom into the coming decades. So, let’s get that engine cranking!

June 26th, 2014

APIs in the Connected Car: APIdays San Francisco

APIdays SFToday, I’m going to share some rather opinionated thoughts about APIs and the connected car. My opinions on this subject sprang from a combination of real-world experience plus (informed) speculation and came together as I prepared a talk for APIdays San Francisco.

The connected car is widely recognized as a game changer for the automotive industry. Experts all agree that just selling cars is a thing of the past. Mobility, connectivity and in-car user-experience will be leading decision considerations for car sales. Right now, automotive manufacturers, content providers and app developers are all competing to take a leading role in the connected car space. This is a matter of survival. Winners of the competition will be richly rewarded; the losers may sink into oblivion.

Car manufacturers seem understandably determined to dominate the connected car space. But this space is inherently shared with device manufacturers, content providers and app developers. Take away any one participant and you no longer have a sustainable ecosystem. If the automotive sector is not prepared to work with and accommodate the needs of other stakeholders, then no one will win. There are three things the industry can do to make things significantly better right away.

1. Implement a Standard Hypermedia Type for Automotive APIs
Right now, every car manufacturer wants to do its own thing and sees originality as a key to differentiation. This is a fallacy. There are way too many car manufacturers for content providers and app developers to keep up with the variety. Some have suggested that all manufacturers should just deploy Android as the base OS. I personally doubt they will all be able to agree on something as fundamental as the core OS. We should shoot for something much more realistic.

This is where hypermedia comes in. The most distributed system ever built — the World Wide Web — uses a hypermedia type (HTML) as its engine. There is a great opportunity to create a hypermedia format for car APIs that will energize the space just like HTML did for the Web. I believe this format could be based on an existing, generic type such as: Uber, HAL or Siren. This would be similar to the way the Collection.Document type was created for the news media industry, based on Collection.json.

2. Adopt a Standard API Security & Identity System
The prospect of connected cars getting hacked creates enormous anxiety. But connected car security can be addressed quite simply by adopting a security framework based around compartmentalization and standards-based access control.

In this context, “compartmentalization” means that core functions of the vehicle should be highly guarded. Specifically, no third-party app should have access to core driving functions like handling and braking. Meanwhile, a standards-based access control framework like OAuth will provide secure, granular access to specific system features. This would be similar to the way mobile apps currently ask for access to other parts of the device (GPs, contacts etc.)

3. Enable App Developers
Currently, only the lucky few are able to develop apps for connected cars. Generally, these are app vendors that have formal partnerships with car manufacturers. In most cases, developers can’t even get access to API documentation without a group of lawyers signing stacks of papers. The connected car space will not develop if it remains a tightly-held, closed system. On the contrary, manufacturers must build developer communities by providing the things that developers require: documentation; self-service portals; sandboxes; SDKs etc.

But That’s Not All
These are three immediate steps that can be taken to improve the connected car space significantly but as the space develops, we will have to focus not only on immediate requirements but also on the big picture. The connected car is a special case of the Internet of Things (IoT). The context of IoT is different enough that it requires a fundamentally different approach to system design and architecture. Hopefully, I will be able to delve into this context more in future.

Another aspect of the big picture is a good deal simpler: fun. If this space is going to develop as it should, manufacturers will have to make it fun for developers to experiment with the potential of automotive connectivity.

So, have fun out there!

June 9th, 2014

Jailbreak Your APIs

Jailbreak Your APIsAt this week’s Computers, Freedom & Privacy Conference, I gave a presentation titled Jailbreak Your APIs, in which I explored the concept of “linked APIs” and explained the potential these interfaces have for helping us create a freer, more open world. The global informational overload that we are constantly exposed to, can be overwhelming but ideas like linked APIs help us remember that the explosive surge of available data also brings us beautiful things such as transparency, openness and an unprecedented feeling of global connectedness.

We’ve never felt more connected to the rest of the world than we do now. Computers, mobile devices and the Internet have brought us closer than ever before. We now take it for granted that a person can be pretty much anywhere in the world and still get a real-time, front-row view of breaking news from half-way around the globe. While this disappearance of informational boundaries has surfaced many of our most polarizing differences, we still cherish our unprecedented ability to access information because access to information has always been our most powerful weapon for defending our rights and liberties.

In this context, the White House’s Open Data Policy (part of the Open Government Initiative) is particularly exciting. Never before has the American public had so much access to government information, at all levels. And all this happens directly through the Internet, in near real-time. The ability to access this information in a timely manner is crucial – we need access to information right when it is immediately relevant to guaranteeing our freedoms. This relates to my work with CA Layer 7’s API Academy because APIs supply the core technology for facilitating timely access to data.

Recent growth in the prominence of APIs is not simply a reaction to Open Government and Open Data. The API has organically become more important in recent years, due to our increasingly mobile lifestyles. APIs are vital to mobility because they connect our mobile devices to the cloud – specifically, to the datacenters that host the information and functionality that powers our apps. APIs have played an undeniably critical role in the mobile revolution of recent years. However, for APIs to play a similar role in the Open Data revolution, we need them to become much better.

The problem with APIs right now is that most of them are, at best, creating narrow windows into solid walls surrounding siloed data. Even the biggest, most well-known APIs (such as those provided by Twitter, Facebook and Google) to a large extent, only operate on the data that is within these organizations’ own databases. And most Government APIs don’t even allow any “write” functionality – they are strictly read-only.

In that sense, most current APIs create isolated, guarded data islands. This is very “anti-Web” — the World Wide Web was created in the spirit of decentralized equal participation. On the Web, everybody publishes everywhere, owns their data and then we have ways to reach that data through hyperlinks, through Google search and other methods. APIs have not really reached that stage of maturity yet. APIs are highly centralized, in terms of data storage and virtually none of them ever link to other APIs.

We need a new breed of interfaces: linked APIs, based on the same hypermedia design that we have on the rest of the Web. Such APIs will have the biggest impact for Open Data because they will link and make connections across datasets and organizational boundaries. Linked APIs are also very scalable, so they will be best suited to meeting the challenges of Big Data. After all, the Web is the largest, most distributed network of information humankind has ever created. We know the architecture of the Web can scale and linked APIs have the exact same architecture, with hypermedia as the engine.

For freedom of data, we really need more linked APIs. We can only truly have open and free data if we jailbreak the information out of the silos it is currently stashed-away in. Linked APIs provide us with keys to the data fortresses where large aggregators currently keep data. Linked APIs can ensure that our data isn’t stashed in centralized warehouses. Linked APIs represent the engine of data freedom on the Web. Let’s get the engine cranking!

April 17th, 2014

Next API Tech Talk: Linked APIs

Linked APIsThe challenges faced by today’s software architects go far beyond the familiar. “Big Data” means more than managing petabytes of data – it requires dealing with data-sets that span organizational boundaries. Likewise, the term “distributed system” no longer refers to just a multi-tier architecture or cloud deployment – it usually involves the connection of non-heterogeneous systems across multiple organizations.

On Thursday April 24, I’ll discuss these challenges as part of Layer 7’s latest API Tech Talk. I’ll be using this opportunity to explore how architects can leverage “linked APIs” to handle Big Data sets and distributed systems that cross organizational, technological and cultural boundaries, breaking through data silos in order to better integrate information. Interested? Just add the Tech Talk to your calendar and go to api.co/L7live at 9am PDT (12pm EDT) next Thursday.

I’ll also be taking your questions on linked APIs, Big Data, distributed systems, open source and anything related, so please don’t hesitate to join in. You can submit your questions now by email or you can chat with me or tweet them at me on the day. This will be my first Tech Talk since joining the Layer 7 API Academy and I’m really, really looking forward to a lively discussion. See you on April 24!